by Philip H Smith & John C Morrison
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Dr. John C. Morrison is one of the foremost authorities on the analysis of the induction and exhaust processes of high-speed engines. Together with Philip Smith, he gives a thorough explanation of the physics that govern the behavior of gases as they pass through an engine and the theories and practical research methods used in designing more efficient induction manifolds and exhaust systems, for both competition and street use.
● Basic Intentions
Requirements - Effect on design - Charge mixing - Fixed residual quantity - Exhaust manifold - Overlapping - Blowing-down - Influence of residuals - Effect on temperature - Pressure balance - Early inlet opening - Gas flow characteristics - Manifold design - Reverse flow
● Simple Flow Problems
Eliminating interference - Long branches - Pressure variations - Flow experiments - Types of silencer - Pipe friction - Crossley scavenging engine - Vehicle requirements - Pulsating gas-flow
● Sound And Its Energy
Basic theory - Propagation of sound waves - Wave length and velocity - Phase and path difference - Pressure variation - Interference in sound waves - Velocity of sound - Effect of pressure and temperature - Progressive and stationary waves - Particle velocity and pressure variations - The organ pipe - Resonance and harmonics
● Pressure Measurement Apparatus
Rapid response - Principle of Morrison indicator - Multipoint valve - Indicator frame - Pressure readings - Single-point indicator - Timing the indicator - Setting-up - The electronic indicator - Time scale - Permanent records - Further details
● Pressure Phenomena And Their Application
Exhaust pressure - Wave propagation - Gas speed - Column inertia - The ideal curve - Organ pipe theory - Speed of the wave - What the curves show - Varying pipe length - Pressure and pipe length - Pressure and engine speed - Resonance - Pressure in long pipe - Multi-cylinder manifolds - Sub-division of manifolds - Siamesed ports - Independence of vibration - Interference - Interference application - Interference action - Test conclusions - Six-cylinder engines - Interference on a six - Effect on parallel-twin - Resistance method
● Silencer Design
Sound reduction - The exhaust box - Restricted outlet - Absorption silencers - Design considerations - Tailpipe size - Silencing motor-cycle type engines - Back pressure silencer - The projected design - Test of back pressure silencer - Further experiments
● Designing A System With Silencer
Design factors - Primary pipe length - Pipe diameter - Primary pipe layout - Exhaust box - Dimensions - Tailpipe - Mountings - Six-cylinder engines - Cylinder ports - Existing manifold - Interference manifolds
● Designing A System For Racing
Individual pipes - Pipe shape - Varying diameter - Diffuser shape - Designer"s comments - Fact and fancy - Combined systems - Multi-cylinder experiments - Tailpipe fittings
● Induction System Design
General requirements - Carburetter position - Four-cylinder problems - Duct length - Six-cylinders - Other engines - Tract conditions - Mixture quality - Heating arrangements - Exhaust heat - Water jackets
● Cylinder Filling
Flow through inlet valve - Cylinder pressures - Manifold pressures - Ramming technique - Individual duct - Air intake length - Combined ramming
● Modern Induction Practice . .
Modern induction systems - Performance comparison, Triumph - Vauxhall design - Performance comparison, Vauxhall - Ramming pipes - Long ducts - Chrysler ram-induction - Multiple chokes
● Valve Timing
Timing angles - Practical example - Bolder measures - Conditions at b d c - Inlet valve - Inlet t d c - Rate of lift
● An Analysis Of The Induction Process
Evolution - Pressure variations - End-of-stroke pressure - Induction process - Influence on torque - Use of analysis - Valve size - Conclusion
● Exhaust Pollution Control
The pollution problem - The formation of pollutants - Other factors influencing exhaust emissions - Measurement of emissions - Methods of control - The Zenith Stromberg CDSE carburetter - The Zenith Duplex system - Manifold-air-oxidation - Gulp valves - Control of oxides of nitrogen - Exhaust recirculation - Reactor manifolds - Catalytic converters - Future developments
Imperial standard wire gauge - Cross-sectional areas of tubing - Dimensions and weights of tubing - Volume of exhaust boxes - Conversion factors: area, volume, weight, pressure, velocity, temperature, gas speed
● List Of Works Consulted
Books - Articles in periodicals -Papers to learned societies - Theses, briefs, drafts, letters
This authoritative book will lead you through the complex theory to an understanding of how to design high-performance exhaust and intake systems for your own particular application.
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